Dale's Cone of Experience

Introduced by Edgar Dale (1946) in his textbook on audiovisual methods in teaching, the Cone of Experience is a visual device meant to summarize Dale’  classification system for the varied types of mediated learning experiences. The organizing principle of the Cone was a progression from most concrete experiences (at the bottom of the cone) to most abstract (at the top). The original labels for Dale’s ten categories are: Direct, Purposeful Experiences; Contrived Experiences; Dramatic Participation; Demonstrations; Field Trips; Exhibits; Motion Pictures; Radio – Recordings – Still Pictures; Visual Symbols; and Verbal Symbols.

High students after an extra-curricular activity.

Dale made minor modifications of the visual in the second edition (1954), changing Dramatic Participation to Dramatized Experiences and adding Television. By the third edition of the textbook, Dale (1969) acknowledged the growing popularity of Jerome Bruner’s (1966) cognitive psychology concepts by overlaying Bruner’s classification system for modes of learning—enactive, iconic, and symbolic—on top of his own categories. This adaptation of his own schema may have been portentous, perhaps giving implied license to others to make other creative adaptations and interpretations, not always to the credit of Dale’s original notion.

Dale’s textbook in its three editions remained popular for over a quarter century. Inasmuch as the Cone provided the organizing principle for the book, it became ingrained in the thinking of generations of educational technology students and professors who used the textbook. It stimulated many efforts to extend the original idea by developing its implications
for elementary education, secondary education, adult education, corporate training, and even counseling.

As a visible leader in audiovisual education, Dale and his work had a great deal of authority within the field. The Cone may be regarded as the earliest highly influential conceptual schema in the field. Dwyer (1978) in his landmark work on visual learning credits Dale as one of the thinkers who inspired the visual education movement: An explanation for the current widespread use of visualization can be traced back to the 1940s and 1950s when a number of theoretical orientations were identified—specifically the iconicity theory identified by Morris (1946) [and] Dale’s (1946) cone of experience… (p. 6)

Dale’s own claims for this classification system were modest and qualified. He advised against viewing the categories as “rigid, inflexible divisions (p. 37).” He insisted that the classifications should not be regarded as any sort of “hierarchy or rank order (p. 47).” This addresses one of the most prevalent misconceptions of the Cone—that the progression from concrete to abstract represented a value judgment about concrete over abstract learning activities. Instead, Dale advocated the use of whatever methods or media were appropriate for the learner and the task, acknowledging that words can be a powerful and efficient means of conveying ideas even for the youngest children. If he had a bias regarding media it was toward rich combinations of concrete and abstract experiences: “Abstractions must be combined, if we are to have rich, full, deep, and broad experience and understanding. In brief, we ought to use all the ways of experiencing that we can (p. 48).” Because many of those who referred to the Cone were advocates for specific media or for audiovisual media in general, they had a tendency to selectively emphasize those parts of Dale’s work that supported their claims. Thus by the time of the third edition of Audiovisual Methods in Teaching (1969) Dale found it necessary to devote six pages of the chapter on the Cone to “Some Possible Misconceptions (pp. 128-134).” At the core of the misconceptions are the notions that the value of an activity increases with its realism and that the learner’s understanding grows by beginning with direct experience and progressing to increasingly abstract activities.

One explanation for the prevalence of other interpretations of the Cone is that Dale did not explicitly draw the distinction between a descriptive construct and a prescriptive theory. He surely intended the Cone to be descriptive—a classification system—and not prescriptive—a road map for lesson planning. He came close to drawing this distinction when he stated in the Summary of his chapter on the Cone: “The cone, of course, is merely an aid to understanding  this subject…something to help explain the relationship of the various types of sensory materials…(p. 52).” The key words are “understand” and “explain.” These words indicate a descriptive purpose, not a prescriptive one.

On the other hand, Dale himself sometimes fell prey to the urge to extend the descriptive construct to prescriptions, as pointed out by Subramony (in press). References to “uses” or “implications” of the Cone are scattered throughout the various editions of Dale’s textbook (Dale 1946, 1954, 1969). An example found in the third edition (1969) states “When properly understood and used, however, the Cone can be a helpful and practical guide (p. 110).” With this sort of ambiguity from the author, it is not surprising that many of his followers attempted to use the Cone as a prescriptive guide to lesson planning.


Student thespians in their annual presentation.

Origins of the Cone’s concepts Ideas parallel to those expressed by Dale in the Cone of Experience appeared in the literature of education prior to 1946. Pau Saettler (1990), the historian of the field of instructional technology, points to Exposition and Illustration in Teaching, published in 1910 by John Adams “which included the following ‘order of merit’ concerning concreteness: ‘(1) the real object, for which anything else is a more or less inefficient substitute; (2) a model of the real object; (3) a diagram dealing with some of the aspects of the object; and (4) a mere verbal description of the object.’ (p. 140). However, a more direct ancestor of the Cone is probably a diagram presented by Hoban, Hoban, and Zisman (1937).

They made the conceptual breakthrough of constructing a graph in which visual media are arranged along the y axis while the learner’s level of development—from the concrete level of thinking to the abstract level of thinking—is arrayed along the x axis. In applying the graph to a particular case, one would locate the learner’s current level of conceptual development
(concrete to abstract) then trace up to the slope line and then horizontally over to the visual medium that intersects at the same point. For example, an experienced learner with a highly developed (abstract) knowledge of “jet propulsion” would be expected to be able to learn more about jet propulsion effectively with diagrams and verbal texts.

Hoban, Hoban, and Zisman’s categories were: total situation, objects, models, films, stereographs, slides, flat pictures, maps, diagrams, and words. Dale’s schema differs mainly in the addition of several classes of media and active learning experiences and the simplification of the schema by showing only y axis—the media, indicating the other dimension (concreteabstract) by the pyramidal shape of the cone. Although Dale’s schema appears to be quite derivative of Hoban, Hoban, and Zisman’s graph, he does not explicitly acknowledge this source, although he makes several references to their book elsewhere in his textbook.

Misappropriation of the Cone

It is important to discuss what the Cone is not as well as what it is because of a
widespread misrepresentation that has become ubiquitous in recent years. At some point someone conflated Dale’s Cone with a spurious chart that purports to show what percentage of information people remember under different learning conditions. As Dwyer points out, the reported percentages are impossible to interpret or verify without specifying at least the method of measurement, the age of the learners, the type of learning task, and the content being remembered (p. 10). Despite the lack of credibility, this
formulation is widely quoted, usually without attribution, and in recent years has become repeatedly conflated with Dale’s Cone, with the percentage statements superimposed on the cone, replacing or supplementing Dale’s original categories. The examples are too numerous to document here, but are discussed in detail and with citations in Subramony (in press).

In summary, the Cone of Experience is essentially a visual metaphor for the idea that learning activities can be placed in broad categories based on the extent to which they convey the concrete referents of real-life experiences. Although it has sometimes been interpreted as advocating the selection of certain media and methods over others (favoring “realism”), such was
not Dale’s stated intent. It has also been interpreted by many as a prescriptive formula for selecting instructional media. Dale’s own explanations are nebulous enough to enable a wide variety of interpretations to find support. Finally, there is the contemporary problem of the conflation of the Cone with the “Socony-Vacuum percentages.” The fact that the Cone has been taken seriously enough to be used in so many ways testifies to the robustness and attractiveness of Dale’s visual metaphor.




For decades the country has been facing tremendous problems which are the 21st century version of what Rizal described in his Noli Me Tangere as “cancer of the society,” problems which, like the hero’s immortal novel, have something to do with political atrocities, social inequality, and moral decadence.

Thus, the government on its part is always in the flight towards solving these problems. National and local officials often claim that they commit themselves in catering the welfare of the people through projects and programs being implemented by each administration. They may fail to make the nation be at par with our international neighbors, it is not solely their fault though. As democracy is the living power of the land, our country is not a state ruled by the government but a nation governed by the people. All the sectors in the society have the responsibility in attaining greater heights of development and prosperity and in helping to make our country a better place to live in.

Based on statistics, our population is composed largely by the youth. Being a part of it, I recognized the significance of the youth in shaping our country’s future. If educated well with enough skills and knowledge and equipped with wholehearted social responsibility and steadfast moral values, the youth will truly be the hope which Motherland waits for centuries.


College Student Government SY 2009-2010 of Cor Jesu College, Digos City

As an active student leader in our school, I am one of the young men and women who are doing their best to contribute something beneficial, not only to our fellow students, but to the community as well. Most of the activities and projects that I and my fellow student leaders are initiating center on promoting academic excellence, social responsibility, and spiritual maturity.

By gearing up education and not limiting its venue in the four corners of the classroom, we have able to come up with activities like workshops in computer related subjects which recognized the importance of technology in today’s era of modernization, seminars on the learning English as the universal language, and competitions that showcase the youth’s talent and skill in various fields.

To establish social responsibility, we have conducted symposia on the significance of participating in the election and being vigilant during this precious event of our country as a democratic nation, consultations with the members of the community on the impact of mining in the flora and fauna, and clean-up drives to promote the advantages of a clean surrounding in keeping a healthy and sound environment.

Above all, it is vital to uphold our spirituality by facilitating activities that give worth to the faith of every individual, activities that will make a person’s day-to-day concerns and decisions be in accordance to the heartfelt and unwavering conviction on the existence of God, His power and providence.

This is how I can best help in making our country a better place to live in by leading not others but by empowering fellow youths towards academic excellence, social responsibility, and spiritual maturity.

Faith: Spirituality of Love

Posted: September 2, 2010 in Philosophical Views

Growing up in faith is living a spiritually-inclined life. Being spiritual is doing what is right rather than indulging to wrongdoings. On top of this, it is valuing God’s commandments by loving Him above all things and loving others as we love ourselves. For me, it is the very core of my faith.

It may sound quite theological and yet I believe that living a spiritual life is learning to love and be loved. Knowing God, He is love, and love is His superb revelation to mankind. Love is not solely a religious norm though. It is a human instinct.

However, love is more than having the intense feeling of affection towards the opposite sex or the feeling of care and attachment to your family and friends. It is the greatest experience that a person may experience in life.

Of all the problems that are being faced by our nation, you may possibly wonder how can love help make our country a better place to live in.

Since the family has the integral role in shaping our lives, it is best to be part in making its foundation strengthened by love. By valuing love in the family, I will begin in learning to love myself. It is by doing the best in my studies, staying away from vices and trouble, and keeping a healthy and wholesome lifestyle. Through this I can be ensured with a bright future which is being a productive citizen rather than a liability of the government.

Living out love in myself makes me learn to love the society where I belong and the country in general. It helps me to become socially responsible by doing my duties as a youth like participating in the elections, abiding to prescribed laws, becoming vigilant on socio-political issues, and involving myself to school and community activities that promote the welfare of the people and the environment.

Having a loving character starting within the family makes me a loving son and brother who values respect, understanding, and kindness. Expressing love to my parents and siblings means upholding love in the family. This loving character will eventually reflect on my personality outside our home. I believe that showing this loving attitude towards my peers and all the people I may encounter in life has a significant contribution in keeping a harmonious society.

This is what true faith is- becoming spiritual by loving God and our fellows so as the world He created for us. If all of us will adhere to this faith and be religious enough in obeying His will, there is no doubt that we will find ourselves loving one another.

With my faith which is bound by the spirituality of love, I know that I shall be a part and parcel in making the country a better place to live in.


Expressing love to my parents and siblings means upholding love in the family.

Aling Langit ang Langit?

Posted: September 2, 2010 in Short Story-Filipino

Habang inilalagak ang kabaong sa hukay, di pa rin maiwaglit sa aking balintataw ang nagyari. Hawak ang isang kapirasong papel, hinayaan kong maglakbay ang isipan.

Bang! . . . Umalingawngaw ang putok ng baril. Nagulantang ako; nagbalik sa kamalayan. Naramdaman ko ang pagtagas ng dugo sa aking dibdib. Natagpuan ko ang sarili sa tagong silid na tambayan naming magbabarkada. Ibig kong mahandusay ngunit pinli kong magtapang-tapangan at pinanatili ang tuwid na tindig. Humakbang ako nang pasulong. . . Isa pang tama ng baril ang tumama sa aking dibdib. Doon ko na narinig ang hiyaw ni Inay. Hanggang sa ito’y maging hagulhol at nakakahabag na hikbi.

Nagdilim ang aking paningin. Umikot ang aking pakiramdam. Unti-unting bumilis ang tibok ng aking puso maging ang pihit ng aking hininga. Para akong tumakbo. Hinabol ko ang bawat hanging lalanghapin. Ilang saglit pa’y dahan-dahang naubos ang aking lakas. Bumigay rin ako sa huli. Kasabay ng pagbigat ng talukap ng aking mga mata ang aking pagbagsak mula sa aking kinatatayuan. Naramdaman ko ang pagtama ng aking katawan sa sahig na semento.

Nakapikit ang aking mga mata. Tumatagos sa aking pandinig ang malakas na tawanan ng aking mga barkada. Tawanang hihigit pa sa nakakabinging halakhakan. . . Katahimikan. Sa init ng ulo nauwi ang walang saysay na katuwaan. Sapakan. Basagan ng bungo. Tawanan na naman. Walang humpay na hagikhikan. Napa-iyak ang iba. Ang iba nama’y naglulupasay sa di malamang dahilan. Tunay ngang walang kabuluhan.

Di ako tulad nila. . . sa iisang kadahilanan. Mayroon akong hinahanap. May ibig akong matagpuan. Nais kong marating ang langit. Langit na di ko mahagilap sa aking sarili. Langit na di ko makita’t maramdaman sa aking pamilya. Langit na ipinagkait sa akin ng tadhana.

Habang animo’y sinapian ng kung anong kampon ng kadiliman ang aking mga barkada, heto ako’t tumakbong palayo. Hningal ma’y di ako sumuko. Napatigil ako nang makita nag sarili sa gitna ng isang malawak na lansangan. Nakakalula sa taas ang maga gusali. Marami roong ilaw at sasakyan. Mula sa kawalan, isang impit natawa ang bumati sa akin.

Isang tinig ang aking narinig. “Sa iyo ang lahat ng iyong nakikita ngayon,” ang sambit ng tinig. Napanganga ako. Hindi makapaniwala. “Pagmamay-ari mo ang lahat ng kayang abutin ng iyong paningin,” muli niyang sabi. Bagama’t di ko maramdaman, alam ko masaya ako. Napahalakhak ako; halakhak ng tagumpay.

“Mayaman na ako! Mayaman na ako!” ang aking naisambulat sa kawalan. Tumakbo ako’t nagsisigaw sa tuwa. Tila batang inabutan ng bagong laruan. Dinala ako ng aking mga paa sa isang madilim na panulukang puno ng mga di magkamayaw na kabataang tulad ko. Sa saliw ng musikang di maunawaan kung ingay ba o bulyaw, nabubuhay ang walang kapaguran nilang katawan. Nagkalat ang mga bote ng alak. Malalanghap mo sa paligid ang nakakalasong usok ng sigarilyo na kanilang ibinubuga. Masarap sa pakiramdam ang tanawing iyon. Masaya ako. Alam ko iyon bagama’t di ko nararamdaman. Kaya naman hinayaan kong maging isa sa kanila. Sabay-sabay naming inabot ang rurok ng langit. . . Napatigil bigla ang lahat. . .

“Nasaan ako?” tanong ko sa sarili. Iginala ko nag aking paningin. Isang silid ang aking kinaroroonan. Nakahiga ako sa ibabaw ng isang malambot na kama . Ngmasid ako; nagmatyag.Ilang saglit pa’y pumasok ang isang nakaka-akit na babae. Bumangon ako. Itinuon ko ang mga mata sa kanya. Agad akong nabighani sa kanyang mapanuksong mga titig. Hindi ko napigilang maramdaman ang maaaring madama ng sinumang lalaki sa pagkakataong iyon. Nilapitan ko siya; pinakiramdaman. Tinitigan at dinamadama mula ulo haggang paa. Isang baga ang namuo. Hanggang sa ito’y maging apoy na nagliliyab. Tinangay kami n gaming nagliligablag na emosyon sa kakaibang uri ng langit. Alam kong masaya ako ngunit di ko parin ito maramdaman.

Naguluhan na ako kung bakit. Ninais kong mapaluha subalit tigang na ang aking damdamin. Di ko maunawaan ang aking pakiramdam- galit, lungkot, pait, kabiguan. Pinili kong tumakas. Tinungo ko ang di matukoy na paroroonan. Hanggang sa marating ko ang isang malawak na disyerto. Napahagulhol ako. Mayroon pa pala akong natitirang luha. Sa may di kalayuan isang lalaki ang nakatanaw sa akin.

“Ito rin ba ay langit?” ang bulyaw ko sa kanya. “Langit na mapanlinlang.” pabulong kong sambit. Tinitigan lamang niya ako. Mistula itong estatwang walang pakiramdam. Biglang naghimagsik ang aking kalooban. Hindi ko mapigilang magapi ng ng nakikidigma kong damdamin. Nagwala ako. Winasak ko ang dati ng wasak kong daigdig.

Hanggang sa nakadama ako ng pagod. Natigilan ako. Hhindi pari naibsan ang bigat na aking naramdaman. Lumubha pa itong lalo. Ikinabigla ko tuloy nang mapunang ako ang lalaking nasa aking harapan. Namamalik-mata nga lang ba ako? Lumapit ako sa kanya. Natigalgal ako nang tutukan niya ako ng baril.

“Sumuko ka na kung ayaw mong masaktan,” matapng niyang utos. “Itaas mo ang iyong mga kamay at walang mangyayari sa iyong masama,” muli nitong sabi.

Hindi ko siya pinakinggan. Humakbang akong palapit sa kanya. Wala akong naririnig kundi ang aking mga yabag at ang bawat hugot ng kanyang hininga. Hanggang sa. . .

Bang! . . . Umalingawngaw ang putok ng baril. . .

Mula sa pagkakapikit, idinilat ko ang aking mga mata. Nagbalik ako sa aking ulirat. Nakhiga sa sahig. May tama ng baril. Duguan. Nag-aagaw-buhay. Mraming tao sa paligid. Naroon ang Inay na abot-langit ang dinadalang pasakit. Isa-isa nang hinuhuli an gang aking mga barkadang bangag sa druga. Heto ako, isang talunan, bigo.

Ngayon ko naunawaang ako ang sumira sa aking sarili. Masakit mang isipin ngunit isa lamang ako sa mga biktima ng kabaluktutan ng lipunan na di na halos mapuna dahil ang lahat ay nakatuon na lang parati sa mga problemang bunsod ng katiwalian sa pamahalaan.
Nagkamali ako. Hindi ako naging masaya. Hindi ko ito nadama. Kailanma’y di ko naabot ang langit sa pamamagitan ng pagsinghot sa hininga ng diyablo. Ilang tulad ko pa kaya ang mapapariwara at hahayaan ng lipunang maging alipin ng bawal nagamot. Anong langit nga kaya ang nakalaan sa akin?

Matapos kong mabasa ang pinunit na pahinang iyon mula sa talaarawan ng aking matalik na kababata, isa lamang ang sumagi sa aking isipan, nagsisisi ako’t wala man lang akong nagawa upang siya’y maialis sa kinasad lakang kapalauan. Ano nga kayang langit ang sa kanya’y nakalaan?


Ano nga kayang langit ang nakalaan sa akin?

A glimpse into the spectacular waterfalls of Brgy. Goma,

pride of the Digos City and Davao del Sur

As the wind blows gently, the leaves of gigantic trees rustle harmoniously in symphony. Like a chorale of voices, the birds so as all the other tiny flying creatures chant an exquisite melody. From the idyllic sight of waterfalls is a subtle flowing of translucent water which creates an incomparable music of nature. All these make up the theatrical panorama of the paradise whom everyone dream of.

Amidst Davao del  Sur’s  plight to urbanization and development is a paradise hiding before the rich virgin forest of Brgy. Goma, the waterfalls capital of Digos City.

A ride of more or less 30 minutes from the heart of the city, Sittio Napan is the reference  point of this soul-captivating destination. From there, one must walk for about two hours to reach the first magnificent scenery, the Lagbong Falls. Its bluish-green water offers an inviting aura to tourist; somewhat like teasing them to swim and feel its relaxing sensation.

To reach the next scenic spot, one should climb the steeps cliff besides  the  falls. A walk for a few minutes in the cool shallow-watered stream will take you to the rocky wall-like banks from both sides of the stream. Upon passing those amazing natural structures, a shoulder-deep river connected to the previous stream must be passed to get into the marvelous neighborhood of waterfalls, the Tamadang Falls in the east facing Nagsanga Falls in the west. The two is like sisters which share the  same river to fill water. As the sun boasts its effulgence, a breathtaking sight of nature’s splendor is formed out of the sunbeam sifted by the crowd of trees surrounding the two waterfalls. It is truly an epitome of the immortal craft of the Almighty

After climbing another steep cliff beside Nagsanga Falls, a natural masterpiece delicately design to allure and delight hearts will welcome the tourists. Mahilak Falls, named after its dramatic flow o water , is a perfect haven for fun and solitude. Its tears-like current flowing from the mountains soothes even your very soul. Indeed, it’s a quixotic portrait of a mystery-filled art of nature.

Another attraction is the nerve-cracking Pinaypay Falls. The falls could be reached by climbing the 20 -40 meters  high creek beside the Tamadang Falls. Its muddy and vine-covered route of 150-170 degrees slope is definitely a one-of-a-kind experience. Upon reaching the top, a stream lined with pines, ferns, and rainforest trees of different varieties will capture your whole being. Because of its unquestionable magnificence, you will surely find yourself becoming like a child as you play in its two-storey water formation.

Meters away, behind those thick bushes of trees above Pinaypay  Falls are the four stunning Magkasilin Falls. A climb in the cliff is the entrance to its portals. After a walk inside the seemingly tunnel of trees roofed with branches and leaves and walled with moss-dressed trunk, the first Magkasilin Falls awaits humbly for its visitors.

The place is so tranquil and calm. Only the chirping of birds and the sounds of the various species of insects could be heard. It seems that it holds a thousand secret tales  of fairies, muses, and nymphs. On the other hand, one needs to climb the cliff beside the latter and walk for a moment in a cool-watered stream in order to bear witness the wondrous beauty of Magkasilin Falls III.

The last falls, the Magkasilin Falls IV is located in the last sittio of Brgy. Goma.  The mountains next to it are its boundary to the southwestern sittios of  Brgy. Kapatagan. Among of its best features are the heartwarming array of birds’ nests in the huge rocks above the falls and its almost 40-foot height perfect for an adventurous water-rappelling.

From Sittio Napan going to Magkasilin Falls IV, there is more or less 15 kilometers of hike and climb. No wonder why the it is chosen to be the venue of the Annual Climb- Penek Busay organized by the Digos Active Mountaineers (DAM) and Kagrupo Outdoor Shop, and sponsored by the local officials. In fact, the local government has been formulating plans to allocate funds for the development of the said tourist attractions.

Who knows that amidst Davao del Sur’s plight towards socio-economic improvement, this waterfall paradise of Brgy. Goma situated in the womb of the affluent forest of Digos will be a great wonder and pride, not just of the province nor of Mindanao, but of the country as well.

Beyond Vigilance

Posted: November 27, 2009 in Socio-political Commentary

A month ago, I had read a news article entitled “BMPM empowers people” from a certain issue of the Philippine Daily Inquirer in July. What I had found out was that in 2007 Election, ABS-CBN introduced the Boto Mo, iPatrol Mo (BMPM) campaign.

As said in the article, the very concept of BMPM is to take picture or video of something that inspires hope, illustrates wrongdoing or anything that is of public concern and is related to the election.

Upon its launching, BMPM was able to mobilize Filipinos, using their mobile phones, to take pictures and videos of what they think was going wrong in the election in their localities.

According to ABS-CBN, picture and video messages sent to BMPM ranged from 500 a day during the campaign period and one every minute on the election day. These messages would be checked for accuracy and validity, and would then be aired to the station’s most credible news programs: TV Patrol World, Bandila, Umagang Kay Ganda; to its sister broadcasting networks, DZMM and ANC; and also published them to www. abs-cbnnews.com.

Maria Ressa, head of the News and Current Affairs Department of ABS-CBN, dubbed BMPM as an example of citizen journalism, in which according to her, is the idea that ordinary citizens have stories to share with their communities.

Currently, BMPM has more than 13 000 registered members widely-known as Boto Patrollers. As of this year, the said activity gets to high gear as “BMPM: AKO ang Simula” has been launched last May.

It attracts a great number of members, most notably the youth, and raises the level of participation of patrollers as ABS-CBN integrates social networking sites like Facebook and Multiply with cellphones and e-mails as medium in submitting reports.

Citizen journalism is a clear manifestation of citizen vigilance. As country is still political unrest, the involvement of the people in social matters is of tremendous value. It is proven for a number of times that the people’s voice plays an integral role in shaping the country’s social situation.

Thus, as BMPM continues to attract vigilant citizens, it follows that the country’s national and local election in 2010 will be guarded by alert and watchful people, and we’ll be ensured, hopefully, with a just and fair election.

If one will just bear in mind the very meaning of  “Ako ang Simula,” one will come to think that whatever will be the fate of our nation, it depends solely in our own hands. It is just a matter of choosing whether we’ll permit the prevailing socio-political atrocities or not.

Moreover, participating in the election by voting for the most credible and honest leader is not enough. Since our country is still reigned by  the most corrupt and selfish politicians, which is for me “a visible truth that people choose to be an invisible reality,” safeguarding our votes that mirror the nation’s future is a must and a responsibility of every Filipino.

BMPM as citizen journalism then is not just vigilance, but a noble expression of nationalism and noteworthy portrait of democracy.

Magdalena si Adan

Posted: November 26, 2009 in Literary- Filipino

Isang dangkal na lang at maabot na ng mga kamay ng orasan ang pag-aalas-singko ng hapon. Mataas pa ang araw. Narito ako. Nakaharap sa salamin. Nakatitig sa sarili. Makisig. Malakas. Matipuno.

Anumang pilit kong pagwawaksi sa isipan, animo’y gamu-gamo pa ring sumusundut-sundot sa liwanag ng aking balintataw ang nakalipas. Isang kahapong

ibaon ko man sa limot ay paulit-ulit na nananahanan sa aking alaala.

Anak ako ng karalitaan. Isang kahig, isang tuka. Ulila. Namatay ang aking mga magulang nang ako’y walong taong gulang pa lamang. Lumaki ako sa piling ng aking lola at nakababatang kapatid. Naging mahirap ang aming buhay. Nangangalam na sikmura. Mga pangangailangang di natutugunan. Tila pinagkaluno kami ng kapalaran. Wala akong magawa kundi ang sabayan ang agos ng panahon at harapin ang mga hamon ng buhay.

Ako ang tumatayong padre de familia. Dahil dito, marami akong responsibilidad. Matanda na ang lola. Di na nito kaya ang mag-hanapbuhay. Kinakailangang gugulin na lamang niya ang kanyang natitirang sandali sa daigdig nang matiwasay at walang suliranin. Marami akong pangarap para sa kanya at sa aking kapatid. Gusto kong mabigyan sila ng magandang buhay. Kaya naman, gusto kong makatapos kami ng aking kapatid sa pag-aaral. Ayaw kong habambuhay na lang kami sa ganitong kalagayan. Hindi ko hahayaan. Hindi maari.Hindi dapat.

Nagpatuloy ko sa paglalakbay sa aking kahapon. Hanggang sa matagpuan ko ang aking sarili na suot ay kapirasong saplot. Sa gitna ng nakabibinging hiyawan, umiindayog sa musika ng kalaswaan. Oo. Pinasok ko ang gawaing sariling laman ang puhunan, ang pagbebenta ng panandaliang aliw. Pinagkakitaan ko ang aking pagka-lalaki. Sa kagustuhang makatapos ng pag-aaral, ginawa ko ang lahat. Naging mapangahas. Padalus-dalos. Sinuong ang lahat ng butas; maging ang butas na naglalagos sa kadiliman. Ito lamang ang nakikita kong paraan upang hindi manatili sa panaginip ang aming mga pangarap.

Kung sinu-sino ang nagpakasasa sa mura kong katawan kapalit ang halagang barya lang kung tutuusin. Binaboy nila ako. Ginamit. Pinaglaruan. . . Buntong-hininga. Ano ang pinagkaiba ko sa isang kalapating mababa ang lipad? Sa isang pukpok? Sa isang haliparot? Nakakatawa. Ano ang tawag sa akin?

Gayunman, ginusto ko ito. Desisyon ko ang lahat. Walang dapat na sisihin kundi ang aking sarili. Ang sarili ko nga lang ba ang dapat na sisihin?

Biglang dumaloy ang natitirang patak ng luha mula sa natitigang kong damdamin. Nakaramdam ako ng kirot sa ang aking dibdib. Animo’y naririnig ko ang pag-uyam ng madla. Ano ang karapatan nilang ako ay husgahan? Wala. Wala silang alam sa aming naging buhay. Narinig ba nila ako nang ako ay nagsusumamo ng tulong? Nagmamakaawa? Hindi. Dahil sila ay makasarili, sakim gahaman.

Nakapagtapos ako ng pag-aaral. Nabigyan ko ng magandang buhay ang aking kapatid. Maayos naming naihatid ang lola sa kanyang huling hantungan. Ang lahat ng ito ay bunga ng marumi kong hanapbuhay, ng marawal kong nakaraan. Sa kabila nito, hindi ko mapasisinungalingan ang katotohanang hindi tuwid ang baluktot, hindi pantay ang tabingi, hindi itim ang puti, lalong di tama ang mali .

Nagbalik ako sa aking ulirat. Nalagpasan na ng mga kamay ng orasan ang pag-aalas- singko ng hapon. Palubog na ang araw. Narito pa rin ako. Nakaharap sa salamin. Di magawang titigan ang sarili. Lugmok. Naghihingalo. Wasak .